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Old 06-24-2014, 06:50 PM   #151
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Default Re: Cool Science Stuff

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Question about the Large Hadron Collider at Cern.... I read that it is cooled to -270+ degrees to allow for the particles to flow without resistance or any drag. That is colder than space. Obviously the coldness is to create an environment of free movement that equates to moving in space. However, we know that temperature effects the way particles move and interact with each other, also. So, will these experiments produce different results based strictly on the colder temps than they would if the experiments were done in actual space?

1.Yes, I know they can't perform these tests in actual space.
2. Yes, I know these scientists are much smarter than me and know what they're doing.
3. It's just a question for speculation and conversation.
The experiments are designed to replicate conditions at big bAng
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Old 06-24-2014, 07:42 PM   #152
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The experiments are designed to replicate conditions at big bAng
As for my question, it's not about what they are trying to do, the question is about measuring the reactions of highly dense matter at extremely cold temperatures. How much would/could the results differ based on the difference in the experiment temperature and actual space temperature.
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Old 06-24-2014, 08:04 PM   #153
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As for my question, it's not about what they are trying to do, the question is about measuring the reactions of highly dense matter at extremely cold temperatures. How much would/could the results differ based on the difference in the experiment temperature and actual space temperature.
Space temperature is hotter. That's a good thing for life but bad for recreating the conditions of the big bang
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Actual space temperature is not a constant.
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Old 06-25-2014, 07:38 AM   #154
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Space temperature is hotter. That's a good thing for life but bad for recreating the conditions of the big bang
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Actual space temperature is not a constant.
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Old 06-26-2014, 08:34 AM   #155
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Looking like a giant pizza covered with melted cheese and splotches of tomato and ripe olives, Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. Volcanic plumes rise 300 km (190 miles) above the surface, with material spewing out at nearly half the required escape velocity.

A bit larger than Earth's Moon, Io is the third largest of Jupiter's moons, and the fifth one in distance from the planet.
Although Io always points the same side toward Jupiter in its orbit around the giant planet, the large moons Europa and Ganymede perturb Io's orbit into an irregularly elliptical one. Thus, in its widely varying distances from Jupiter, Io is subjected to tremendous tidal forces. These forces cause Io's surface to bulge up and down (or in and out) by as much as 100 m (330 feet)! Compare these tides on Io's solid surface to the tides on Earth's oceans. On Earth, in the place where tides are highest, the difference between low and high tides is only 18 m (60 feet), and this is for water, not solid ground!

This tidal pumping generates a tremendous amount of heat within Io, keeping much of its subsurface crust in liquid form seeking any available escape route to the surface to relieve the pressure. Thus, the surface of Io is constantly renewing itself, filling in any impact craters with molten lava lakes and spreading smooth new floodplains of liquid rock. The composition of this material is not yet entirely clear, but theories suggest that it is largely molten sulfur and its compounds (which would account for the varigated coloring) or silicate rock (which would better account for the apparent temperatures, which may be too hot to be sulfur). Sulfur dioxide is the primary constituent of a thin atmosphere on Io. It has no water to speak of, unlike the other, colder Galilean moons. Data from the Galileo spacecraft indicates that an iron core may form Io's center, thus giving Io its own magnetic field.

Io's orbit, keeping it at more or less a cozy 422,000 km (262,000 miles) from Jupiter, cuts across the planet's powerful magnetic lines of force, thus turning Io into a electric generator. Io can develop 400,000 volts across itself and create an electric current of 3 million amperes. This current takes the path of least resistance along Jupiter's magnetic field lines to the planet's surface, creating lightning in Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

As Jupiter rotates, it takes its magnetic field around with it, sweeping past Io and stripping off about 1,000 kg (1 ton) of Io's material every second! This material becomes ionized in the magnetic field and forms a doughnut-shaped cloud of intense radiation referred to as a plasma torus. Some of the ions are pulled into Jupiter's atmosphere along the magnetic lines of force and create auroras in the planet's upper atmosphere. It is the ions escaping from this torus that inflate Jupiter's magnetosphere to over twice the size we would expect.
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Old 06-26-2014, 08:43 AM   #156
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http://obsmegantic.tumblr.com/post/4...a-covered-with



When posting articles, give the link
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Old 06-26-2014, 09:17 AM   #157
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Ganymede is the largest satellite in our solar system. It is larger than Mercury and Pluto, and three-quarters the size of Mars. If Ganymede orbited the sun instead of orbiting Jupiter, it would easily be classified as a planet.

Ganymede has three main layers. A sphere of metallic iron at the center (the core, which generates a magnetic field), a spherical shell of rock (mantle) surrounding the core, and a spherical shell of mostly ice surrounding the rock shell and the core. The ice shell on the outside is very thick, maybe 800 km (497 miles) thick. The surface is the very top of the ice shell. Though it is mostly ice, the ice shell might contain some rock mixed in. Scientists believe there must be a fair amount of rock in the ice near the surface. Ganymede's magnetic field is embedded inside Jupiter's massive magnetosphere.

Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope found evidence of thin oxygen atmosphere on Ganymede in 1996. The atmosphere is far too thin to support life as we know it.

In 2004, scientists discovered irregular lumps beneath the icy surface of Ganymede. The irregular masses may be rock formations, supported by Ganymede's icy shell for billions of years. This tells scientists that the ice is probably strong enough, at least near the surface, to support these possible rock masses from sinking to the bottom of the ice. However, this anomaly could also be caused by piles of rock at the bottom of the ice.

Spacecraft images of Ganymede show the moon has a complex geological history. Ganymede's surface is a mixture of two types of terrain. Forty percent of the surface of Ganymede is covered by highly cratered dark regions, and the remaining sixty percent is covered by a light grooved terrain, which forms intricate patterns across Ganymede. The term "sulcus," meaning a groove or burrow, is often used to describe the grooved features. This grooved terrain is probably formed by tensional faulting or the release of water from beneath the surface. Groove ridges as high as 700 m (2,000 feet) have been observed and the grooves run for thousands of kilometers across Ganymede's surface. The grooves have relatively few craters and probably developed at the expense of the darker crust. The dark regions on Ganymede are old and rough, and the dark cratered terrain is believed to be the original crust of the satellite. Lighter regions are young and smooth (unlike Earth's Moon). The largest area on Ganymede is called Galileo Regio.

The large craters on Ganymede have almost no vertical relief and are quite flat. They lack central depressions common to craters often seen on the rocky surface of the Moon. This is probably due to slow and gradual adjustment to the soft icy surface. These large phantom craters are called palimpsests, a term originally applied to reused ancient writing materials on which older writing was still visible underneath newer writing. Palimpsests range from 50 to 400 km in diameter. Both bright and dark rays of ejecta exist around Ganymede's craters -- rays tend to be bright from craters in the grooved terrain and dark from the dark cratered terrain.
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Old 06-26-2014, 09:20 AM   #158
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Europa is an icy world slightly smaller than Earth's moon. It is unique in the solar system, being thought to have a global ocean of water in contact with a rocky seafloor. If the ocean is proven to exist, Europa could be a promising place to look for life beyond Earth.

10 Need-To-Know Things About Europa:

If the sun were as tall as a typical front door, Earth would be the size of a nickel and Europa would be the size of the dome on the back of the nickel.

Europa is a moon that orbits the planet Jupiter. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun at a distance of about 778 million km (484 million miles) or 5.2 AU.

One day on Europa (the time it takes for Europa to rotate or spin once) takes about 3.5 Earth days. The length of Europa's day is the same as the amount of time it takes Europa to orbit Jupiter. Jupiter makes a complete orbit around the sun (one Jupiter year) in about 12 Earth years (4,333 Earth days).

Like many other moons (including Earth's moon), Europa is locked by gravity to its planet so that the same side always faces toward Jupiter.

Europa's surface is mostly solid water ice. It is extremely smooth and crisscrossed by fractures.

Europa has an extremely thin oxygen atmosphere -- far too thin to breathe.

Europa does not have rings.

Europa and Jupiter have been visited by eight spacecraft, which have performed flybys. Galileo is the only mission to make repeated visits to Europa.

With abundant liquid water, and energy and chemistry provided by tidal heating, Europa could be the best place in the solar system to look for present day life beyond Earth.

If Europa's ocean is proven to exist, it would possess more than twice as much water as Earth.
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Old 06-26-2014, 09:28 AM   #159
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@Born2Steel The link posting isn't a small issue if the copyright owners come after the site.
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Old 06-26-2014, 09:29 AM   #160
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Ganymede is the largest satellite in our solar system. It is larger than Mercury and Pluto, and three-quarters the size of Mars. If Ganymede orbited the sun instead of orbiting Jupiter, it would easily be classified as a planet.

Ganymede has three main layers. A sphere of metallic iron at the center (the core, which generates a magnetic field), a spherical shell of rock (mantle) surrounding the core, and a spherical shell of mostly ice surrounding the rock shell and the core. The ice shell on the outside is very thick, maybe 800 km (497 miles) thick. The surface is the very top of the ice shell. Though it is mostly ice, the ice shell might contain some rock mixed in. Scientists believe there must be a fair amount of rock in the ice near the surface. Ganymede's magnetic field is embedded inside Jupiter's massive magnetosphere.

Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope found evidence of thin oxygen atmosphere on Ganymede in 1996. The atmosphere is far too thin to support life as we know it.

In 2004, scientists discovered irregular lumps beneath the icy surface of Ganymede. The irregular masses may be rock formations, supported by Ganymede's icy shell for billions of years. This tells scientists that the ice is probably strong enough, at least near the surface, to support these possible rock masses from sinking to the bottom of the ice. However, this anomaly could also be caused by piles of rock at the bottom of the ice.

Spacecraft images of Ganymede show the moon has a complex geological history. Ganymede's surface is a mixture of two types of terrain. Forty percent of the surface of Ganymede is covered by highly cratered dark regions, and the remaining sixty percent is covered by a light grooved terrain, which forms intricate patterns across Ganymede. The term "sulcus," meaning a groove or burrow, is often used to describe the grooved features. This grooved terrain is probably formed by tensional faulting or the release of water from beneath the surface. Groove ridges as high as 700 m (2,000 feet) have been observed and the grooves run for thousands of kilometers across Ganymede's surface. The grooves have relatively few craters and probably developed at the expense of the darker crust. The dark regions on Ganymede are old and rough, and the dark cratered terrain is believed to be the original crust of the satellite. Lighter regions are young and smooth (unlike Earth's Moon). The largest area on Ganymede is called Galileo Regio.

The large craters on Ganymede have almost no vertical relief and are quite flat. They lack central depressions common to craters often seen on the rocky surface of the Moon. This is probably due to slow and gradual adjustment to the soft icy surface. These large phantom craters are called palimpsests, a term originally applied to reused ancient writing materials on which older writing was still visible underneath newer writing. Palimpsests range from 50 to 400 km in diameter. Both bright and dark rays of ejecta exist around Ganymede's craters -- rays tend to be bright from craters in the grooved terrain and dark from the dark cratered terrain.
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/...t=Jup_Ganymede
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